Diamond is a solid form of the element carbon with its atoms arranged in a crystal structure called diamond cubic. At room temperature and pressure, another solid form of carbon known as graphite is the chemically stable form, but diamond almost never converts to it. Diamond has the highest hardness and thermal conductivity of any natural material, properties that are utilized in major industrial applications such as cutting and polishing tools. They are also the reason that diamond anvil cells can subject materials to pressures found deep in the Earth.

Because the arrangement of atoms in diamond is extremely rigid, few types of impurity can contaminate it (two exceptions being boron and nitrogen). Small numbers of defects or impurities (about one per million of lattice atoms) color diamond blue (boron), yellow (nitrogen), brown (defects), green (radiation exposure), purple, pink, orange or red. Diamond also has relatively high optical dispersion (ability to disperse light of different colors).

Most natural diamonds have ages between 1 billion and 3.5 billion years. Most were formed at depths between 150 and 250 kilometres (93 and 155 mi) in the Earth’s mantle, although a few have come from as deep as 800 kilometres (500 mi). Under high pressure and temperature, carbon-containing fluids dissolved various minerals and replaced them with diamonds. Much more recently (tens to hundreds of million years ago), they were carried to the surface in volcanic eruptions and deposited in igneous rocks known as kimberlites and lamproites.

Synthetic diamonds can be grown from high-purity carbon under high pressures and temperatures or from hydrocarbon gas by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Imitation diamonds can also be made out of materials such as cubic zirconia and silicon carbide. Natural, synthetic and imitation diamonds are most commonly distinguished using optical techniques or thermal conductivity measurements.

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Diamond rings for women and diamond rings for men

Diamond rings mean so much. They represent beautiful commitments to one another, whether that be a promise, a life-long commitment or an anniversary celebration of your commitment to one another. At Kay, our selection of stunning and radiant diamond rings is your one-stop-shop to all the important diamond rings in your life.

Whether you’re looking for a diamond promise ring, a diamond engagement ring, a diamond wedding band or a diamond anniversary ring, let Kay be your guide in celebrating these important milestones in your life. Perhaps you are just a fan of diamond rings and would like a diamond fashion ring. Shop diamond rings with rose gold or shop trending black diamond rings to add to your fashion accessories. There are so many diamond cuts, from the original round diamond to sleek marquise diamonds. With the endless amounts of cuts, colors and ring settings, Kay Jewelers has the diamond ring you’ve been looking for.

Diamond Certifications 101

Diamond Certificates

Some diamonds from KAY are accompanied by an independent certification as to their quality and value. The report from that evaluation is called a diamond certificate – also known as a diamond grading report, diamond dossier, diamond quality document or diamond light performance certificate.

Your independent diamond certification is produced by trained professionals and will include the following information:

The 4Cs of diamond quality: the color, clarity, cut and carat weight of a specific diamond as viewed under magnification.
A diamond’s characteristics: proportions, finish and treatments.

Depending upon the diamond, you may also receive a light performance certificate:

Light performance measures the bright white light (brilliance), bright color light (fire) and scintillation (sparkle) of a diamond.

Because no two diamonds are exactly alike, a diamond certificate can even serve as your diamond’s fingerprint or identification in case of loss or theft.
Learn more about some of the most well-known diamond grading laboratories

Gemological Science International (GSI)

GSI is an independent gemological laboratory based in the heart of New York City’s Diamond District with additional offices in diamond centers around the world.

GSI offers gemstone identification, grading and appraisal services exclusively to the fine jewelry industry.

The lab’s business model is built on integrity, innovation, professional service and shared research education.

American Gem Society (AGS)

AGS Laboratories developed the AGS Performance-Based Cut Grading System.

The key to the system is tracing light as it travels through the diamond. That’s what determines whether a diamond looks bright and lively or dull and mediocre.

The lab offers several levels of grading reports. The most popular is the Diamond Quality Document. It shows cut (if available), color, clarity and carat weight accompanied by a profile showing that individual diamond’s measurements, along with a custom plot for the actual facet arrangement and inscription details.

Gem Institute of America (GIA)

GIA pioneered diamond grading in the 1940s, creating a consistent way to describe a diamond in common language.

Today, GIA grading certificates are considered the hallmark of integrity in the diamond world.

The private laboratory issues two types of reports:

The GIA Diamond Grading Report provides scientifically determined information on shape, clarity, color, cut, carat weight, proportions, finish and treatments. It also includes a diagram of the diamond showing any inclusions that affect clarity.
The GIA Diamond Dossier is a more concise version of the full report and is available for loose diamonds between .15 and 1.99 carats.

International Gemological Institute (IGI)

IGI is an independent grading and appraisal organization with centers in New York City and Los Angeles, as well as in Antwerp, Bangkok, Mumbai, Tokyo, Dubai and Toronto.

Several gemologists carefully analyze each diamond and produce an accurate description of its characteristics, such as color, clarity, carat weight and the quality of its cut. The information is stored in IGI’s computer database so you may request an update of your report if the need arises. IGI also offers colored gemstone certificates, educational courses and laser inscription services.

GemEx Systems
GemEx is an independent laboratory that focuses on light performance, or the movement of light through the diamond.

Trained professionals use the GemEx BrillianceScope Analyzer to measure a diamond’s white light (brilliance), color light (fire) and scintillation (sparkle).

These measurements are then compared to those of other diamonds of the same shape. The highest and lowest amount of white light, color light and scintillation possible for each shape was set by measuring thousands of diamonds.

The GemEx Light Performance Report illustrates the measurements for your diamond in a three-bar graph.

Hot Trend 2010 – Unique Diamond Bracelet

To be cutting edge in 2010, check out the unique diamond bracelet hot trend. The hot trend in 2010 of the unique diamond bracelet is the result of raging gold prices, a sour economy, and fashion matching. We have polled the populace and gauged the pulse of style in the fashion jewelry industry and the jewelry piece of the year is going to be the bracelet.

The trends are revealing these surprising patterns. Unique diamonds are becoming very popular. What I mean by a unique diamond is a stone with a history. Inclusion, flaw included diamonds are not a problem as long as it has a unique identifying feature. Perhaps this very diamond was passed from generation to generation in your family to finally end up in your hands. The emotional value of the diamonds history will far outweigh its quality value.

Also, 2010 will see a rise in colored diamonds that are less common than the typical clear or colorless stones. Pink diamonds set in bracelets, pendants and earrings are becoming hugely popular. The chocolate diamond is gaining market share and various other colored gemstones are being used with increasing frequency in jewelry designs by famous designers. The more unique your diamond is, in color, history and discovery, the more valuable it will be in 2010.

When it comes to jewelry design, the bracelet will be the name of the game in 2010. The tennis bracelet or inline bracelet is being seen with increasing frequency on celebrities and fashion movers. A uniquely designed diamond bracelet that defies the classic trends in design are flying off the shelves. Black diamond tennis bracelets, unusual design patterns will be the gift of choice this coming year.

Quality and value will be increasingly important this coming year with a floundering economy, and people are looking for value outside of just a price factor. Unique custom jewelry can accessorize your style and express your character with cleverness trumping cost. In 2010, find a diamond bracelet that expresses your personality with elegance and style, and don’t feel obligated to spend a ton to stay with the times.